The Institutional Review Board is a group that has been formally designated to approve, monitor, and review biomedical and behavioral research involving humans with the aim of protecting the rights and welfare of the subjects. An IRB performs critical oversight functions for research conducted on human subjects. IRBs are guided by the Belmont Report. IRBs are required for all institutions that receive federal funding, directly or indirectly.
Every institution that uses animals for federally funded laboratory reserach must have an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees are of central importance to the application of laws for animal research in the United States. The NIH Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare has been directed by law to develop policies that describe the role of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees.
The Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) is responsible for reviewing and approving recombinant DNA research and aspects of projects involving biohazards and radiation. The committee sets containment levels in accourdance with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.