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COUNS 722: School-Based Consultation




This course provides counselors with the knowledge and skills necessary to engage in consultation, collaborative problem solving, and systems level interventions in school settings. Theories, models, and processes of consultation and change with administrators, teachers, parents, community and mental health agencies, and students will be examined. Consultation within a cross-cultural and ethical framework will be emphasized. Particular attention is given to students with learning and behavioral problems. The majority of this course will be devoted to instruction in skills and strategies required to conduct collaborative consultative services through lecture, applied case work, group work, student presentations, role play, self appraisal, and class discussion.

COCO 700,701,702, 706, 718, 719,725 & COUNS 717

COCO 726

1.    Students will learn strategies to promote, develop, and enhance effective teamwork within the school and larger community.
2.    Students will learn theories, models, and processes of consultation and change with teachers, administrators, other school personnel, parents, community groups, agencies, and students as appropriate.
3.    Students will learn strategies and methods of working with parents, guardians, families, and communities to empower them to act on behalf of their children.
4.    Students will learn knowledge and skills to assess, develop and conduct programs that are designed to enhance students’ academic, social, emotional, career, and other developmental needs.
5.    Students will be able to identify system-wide changes needed to more effectively assess and develop strategies to address the educational needs of all students, and in particular, to facilitate life adjustment of children and youth with disabilities.
6.    Students will gain an understanding of the impact of culture and language as related to consultation and advocacy.
7.    Students will gain an understanding of the ethical and legal considerations of consultations in the school setting.

Weekly sessions will center on lectures and there will be group discussions related to reading material and course assignments. 

Brown, D., Pryzwansky, W., & Schulte, A. (2001). Psychological Consultation and Collaboration (6th ed). Boston: Pearson.

Cobia, D.C. & Henderon, D.A. (2007). Developing an effective and accountable school counseling program (2nd ed). New Jersey: Pearson- Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Ethics for the American School Counselor Association

Gibbs, J.T., & Huang, L.N. (Eds). (2003). Children of color: Psychological interventions with culturally diverse youth (2nd ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Kampwirth, T.J. (2006). Collaborative consultations in the schools. (3rd ed). Columbus, Ohio: Pearson-Merrill Prentice Hall.

Additional readings will be distributed at the discretion of the professor

1.    Attendance and Class Participation

This is an applied course for which attendance and participation are mandatory.  Students who miss more than two classes may have their grade lowered by one-half a grade and may be asked to repeat the course.  If you are ill or have an emergency, please notify the Professor before class, when possible.  Repeated tardiness will also impact your grade. 

Consultation Projects (60%):
a.     Assignment 1: An interview with the School Psychologist, Speech Pathologists and Special Education Instructor

i.    Purpose: To develop contacts and professional relationships within schools to understand individual perceptions of collaboration and consultation.
ii.    Requirement: You are required to interview the school Psychologist, Speech Pathologies and Special Education Instructor. After completing the interviews, write a complete summary of the information.
1.    Sample Questions: Additional interview questions will be developed in class via lectures and readings
a.    Based on your experiences within schools, what has been the best collaborative consultative experience you had?
b.    What qualities are important in a good consultant based on your experience? What has not been helpful?
c.    How do you collaborative with other professional within your school community?
d.    What leadership styles do you find work best work in various settings i.e. groups, team meetings, consultations
e.    What challenges have you encountered?
f.    What ethical considerations do you face?

Paper should be 6-8 pages in length.

b.    Assignment 2: Interview with Teacher and Student File Review

i.    Purpose: To interview a regular or special education teacher about a specific student who may be dealing with a behavioral challenge and review the student’s file.
ii.    Requirement:
1.    Ask your supervisor to identify a teacher/ student who may need a consultation. Parental permission has to be provided in order to discuss the student and review the files.
2.     After completing the teacher interview and review of files, write a complete summary of the information. The following questions must be asked in the teacher interview:
a.    How long have you known the student?
b.    What background information do you have about the student? Strengths and weaknesses?
c.    What are the primary concerns? Describe the behavior?
d.    When and where does the behavior occur? How many times per day? What is the impact of the behavior? What happens before the behavior is exhibited?
e.    What interventions have been attempted? How long were the interventions implemented? What worked? What hasn’t worked?
f.    How does the student work with peers?
g.    Are there any family stressors that may impact behavior? What are the family strengths and resources?
What type of outcome do you envision for this student?

3.    Student File Review: When reviewing the student file, look for the following information:
a.    Student’s primary language
b.    Family of origin’s primary language
c.    ELL (English Language Learner) testing/information
d.    Cultural Background
e.    Educational History
i.    School attendance
ii.    Previous schools
f.    Illnesses/disabilities
g.    Vision/ hearing test results
h.    Progress/report cards and previous teacher comments
i.    Behavior reports i.e. Suspensions/incidents
j.    Reports of abuse or neglect
k.    If the student is a special education student, include their current identified disability
i.    How does the disability impact their current functioning

Paper should be 6-8 pages in length.

c.    Assignment 3: Classroom Observation:

i.    Purpose: To observe the identified student across different school settings.
ii.    Requirements: Ask the teacher for the best times to observe the student, 1 hour structured and 1 hour free-structured time. The observations may be broken into half-hour segments, if the ultimate goal is to collect specific data on frequency of behavior. The observations should occur on different days. Record your behavioral observations according to the behavioral checklists used at the school. The ultimate goal of the observation is to provide objective and non-bias information and how the student interacts within the classroom environment. Present the information gleaned form the observation in a written format that utilizes required forms and a brief summary. The following information should be included:
a.    Name of student/ date of birth/ description
b.    Grade/ Date of observation/ Time
c.    Teacher
d.    # of students in classroom
e.    Description of referring behaviors
f.    Description of setting and instructional period
g.    Where is the student situated in the room?
h.    How is the student interacting with the instructional materials?
i.    How does the student interact with peers/teacher?
j.    If recoding frequency of a specific behavior, if possible refer to the number of occurrences within a specific amount of time.

Paper should be 4-6 pages in length.

2.    Case Presentation (20%):
The class will be divided into teams to present the cases developed from compiling data from the individual assignments.  Students are encouraged to be CREATIVE in presenting the cases. Power point presentation, printed media, role play, audio/visual aids add to the presentation. The presentation should address the stages of consultation and collaboration. All team members will receive the same grade for the presentation. The presentation must include a role-play of the consultant presenting the information gleaned from Assignments 1, 2, & 3 and an intervention to the student, teacher, administrator and parents. The following will be evaluated:  
a.    Presentation planning
b.    Outline of presentation format
c.    Description of case
d.    Description of problem
e.    Description of resources available
f.    Description of limitations of the systems in which problems are embedded
g.    Description of activities and key interventions
h.    Ability to disseminate information in consultation and in presentation
i.    Feasibility of solutions
j.    Ethical considerations and issues
k.    Ability to empower and encourage advocacy
l.    Recommended reading list and parent resources
m.    Overall presentation of the case in class

3.    Final Exam (10%): A comprehensive final examination will be administered at the end of the course. It will be comprised of multiple choice, short answer, and essay questions. The test will assess comprehension and application, text and lecture materials.
4.    Special topic papers/ Process logs (5%): (CACREP Standards met: A1-10-, B1-7, K1b, K1c) Throughout the course students will be required to attend/participate in and write reaction papers processing their experiences in the following school based meetings/ consultations:
a.    IEP Meetings
b.    Student/Parent/Teacher Meetings
c.    Suspension/Detention Meetings
d.    Parent Teacher Association Meetings (PTA) Grading Procedure

Paper should be 2-3 pages in length.

Grading Evaluation
Attendance, Class Participation, Dispositions  5%
Consultation Projects:  60%
a. Assignment 1:  20%
b. Assignment 2:  20%
c. Assignment 3:  20%
Case Presentation:  20%
Final Examination  10%
Reaction Papers  5%
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 Graduate Grades Scale:


100-97.5% = A+
92.5– 97.4% = A
90 – 92.4% = A-
87.5 – 89.9%
82.5 – 87.4% = B
80.0 – 82.4%
77.5 – 79.9%
70.0 – 77.4% = C
0 – 69.9% = F


session Topic
 1  Intro to course and consultation

 K1b, K1f, A1, A2, A4, A5, B1, C2a, C2d-h, C3a-d
 2  Overview of School Based Consultation
DPS – 1

 K1b, K1f, A1, A2, A4, A5, B1, C2a, C2d-h, C3a-d
 3  Models of Consultation DPS-2,3,4
K -2

 K1b, K1f, A1, A2, A4, A5, B1, C2a, C2d-h, C3a-d
 4  Communication, Leadership, and Interpersonal Skills DPS-7

 5  Ethics and Advocacy DPS-12,13
ASCA code
Assignment 1
 A10, K1h, K2f
 6  Consultation Stages and Processes

 K1b, K1f, A1, A2, A4, A5, B1, C2a, C2d-h, C3a-d
 7  Students w/ Emotional and Behavioral Disorders K-6
Assignment 2
 8  Students w/Academic Learning Disabilities K-7

 9  Consultations with parents &/or caregivers

 K5a-g, A2, A4, A5, B1-6, C2d-h, C3a-d
 10  Systems-level consultations DPS-5

 K5a-g, A2, A4, A5, B1-6, C2d-h, C3a-d
 11  Program Evaluation/ Development/Implementation
CH – 4,5
Assignment 3
 K3b,K3c,K4a-I, K8a-f, A2, A5, B2-6, C1a-g, C2d, C3a-d
 12  Impact of Culture and Language GH selected ch.
 K2a-f, A7, B1, C3a-d
 13  Data-based decision making DPS-11
 14  Community Building and Advocacy K-8
 K1bm K6b, K6e, K6g, A2, A4, A5, A8, B2-6, C2a-b, C2d-h, C3a-d
 15  Final Examination

Expectations for Written Proficiency
Students must demonstrate consistently satisfactory written English in coursework. The Hunter College Writing Center provides tutoring to students across the curriculum and at all academic levels. For more information, see In addition, the Teacher Placement Office in the School of Education offers a writing workshop during the semester and a series of free writing classes are offered to students who are in need of additional support in improving their writing skills. In both cases, stop by room I000 West for information and dates of workshops.

Integrity and Plagiarism
Hunter College has subscribed to the online company, allows faculty to compare student papers with extensive databases of billions of documents in order to detect and verify material that has been plagiarized.  In this course, is used to deter students from plagiarizing material.  Please be aware that student papers will be examined from time to time.  Students who plagiarize will be punished. “Hunter College regards acts of academic dishonesty (e.g., plagiarism, cheating on examinations, obtaining unfair advantage, and falsification of records and official documents) as serious offenses against the values of intellectual honesty.  The college is committed to enforcing the CUNY Policy on Academic Integrity and will pursue cases of academic dishonesty according to the Hunter College Academic Integrity Procedures.”

Statement of Reasonable Accomodation
In compliance with the American Disability Act of 1990 (ADA) and with Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Hunter College is committed to ensuring educational parity and accommodations for all students with documented disabilities and/or medical conditions. It is recommended that all students with documented disabilities (Emotional, Medical, Physical and/ or Learning) consult the Office of AccessABILITY located in Room E1124 to secure necessary academic accommodations.  For further information and assistance please call (212- 772- 4857)/TTY (212- 650- 3230).


K.1.b. professional roles, functions, and relationships with other human service providers; c. technological competence and computer literacy;

K.1.f. public and private policy processes, including the role of the professional counselor in advocating on behalf of the profession;

K.1.h. ethical standards of ACA and related entities, and applications of ethical and legal considerations in professional counseling.

2. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY - studies that provide an understanding of the cultural context of relationships, issues, and trends in a multicultural and diverse society related to such factors as culture, ethnicity, nationality, age, gender, sexual orientation, mental and physical characteristics, education, family values, religious and spiritual values, socioeconomic status and unique characteristics of individuals, couples, families, ethnic groups, and communities including all of the following:

K.2.a. multicultural and pluralistic trends, including characteristics and concerns between and within diverse groups nationally and internationally;

K.2.b. attitudes, beliefs, understandings, and acculturative experiences, including specific experiential learning activities;

K.2.c. individual, couple, family, group, and community strategies for working with diverse populations and ethnic groups;

K.2.d. counselors' roles in social justice, advocacy and conflict resolution, cultural self¬awareness, the nature of biases, prejudices, processes of intentional and unintentional oppression and discrimination, and other culturally supported behaviors that are detrimental to the growth of the human spirit, mind, or body;

K.2.e. theories of multicultural counseling, theories of identity development, and multicultural competencies; and

K.2.f. ethical and legal considerations.

K.3.a. theories of individual and family development and transitions across the life span;

K.3.b. theories of learning and personality development;

K.3.c. human behavior, including an understanding of developmental crises, disability, exceptional behavior, addictive behavior, psychopathology, and situational and environmental factors that affect both normal and abnormal behavior;

K.3.d. strategies for facilitating optimum development over the life span; and

K.3.e. ethical and legal considerations.

K.4.a. career development theories and decision-making models;

K.4.b. career, avocational, educational, occupational and labor market information resources, visual and print media, computer-based career information systems, and other electronic career information systems;

K.4.c. career development program planning, organization, implementation, administration, and evaluation;

K.4.d. interrelationships among and between work, family, and other life roles and factors including the role of diversity and gender in career development;

K.4.e. career and educational planning, placement, follow-up, and evaluation;

K.4.f. assessment instruments and techniques that are relevant to career planning and decision making;

K.4.g. technology-based career development applications and strategies, including computer-assisted career guidance and information systems and appropriate world wide web sites;

K.4.h. career counseling processes, techniques, and resources, including those applicable to specific populations;

K.4.i. and ethical and legal considerations.

K.5.a. counselor and consultant characteristics and behaviors that influence helping processes including age, gender, and ethnic differences, verbal and nonverbal behaviors and personal characteristics, orientations, and skills;

K.5.b. an understanding of essential interviewing and counseling skills so that the student is able to develop a therapeutic relationship, establish appropriate counseling goals, design intervention strategies, evaluate client outcome, and successfully terminate the counselor-client relationship. Studies will also facilitate student self-awareness so that the counselor-client relationship is therapeutic and the counselor maintains appropriate professional boundaries;

K.5.c. counseling theories that provide the student with a consistent model(s) to conceptualize client presentation and select appropriate counseling interventions. Student experiences should include an examination of the historical development of counseling theories, an exploration of affective, behavioral, and cognitive theories, and an opportunity to apply the theoretical material to case studies. Students will also be exposed to models of counseling that are consistent with current professional research and practice in the field so that they can begin to develop a personal model of counseling;

K.5.d. a systems perspective that provides an understanding of family and other systems theories and major models of family and related interventions. Students will be exposed to a rationale for selecting family and other systems theories as appropriate modalities for family assessment and counseling;

K.5.e. a general framework for understanding and practicing consultation. Student experiences should include an examination of the historical development of consultation, an exploration of the stages of consultation and the major models of consultation, and an opportunity to apply the theoretical material to case presentations. Students will begin to develop a personal model of consultation;

K.5.f. integration of technological strategies and applications within counseling and consultation processes; and

K.5.g. ethical and legal considerations.

K.6.b. group leadership styles and approaches, including characteristics of various types of group leaders and leadership styles;

K.6.c. theories of group counseling, including commonalties, distinguishing characteristics, and pertinent research and literature;

K.6.e. approaches used for other types of group work, including task groups, psychoeducational groups, and therapy groups;

K.6.g. ethical and legal considerations.

K.7.a. historical perspectives concerning the nature and meaning of assessment;

K.7.b. basic concepts of standardized and nonstandardized testing and other assessment techniques including norm-referenced and criterion-referenced assessment, environmental assessment, performance assessment, individual and group test and inventory methods, behavioral observations, and computer-managed and computer-assisted methods;

K.7.c. statistical concepts, including scales of measurement, measures of central tendency, indices of variability, shapes and types of distributions, and correlations;

K.7.d. reliability (i.e., theory of measurement errbr, models of reliability, and the use of reliability information);

K.7.e. validity (i.e., evidence of validity, types of validity, and the relationship between reliability and validity);

K.7.f. age, gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, language, disability, culture, spirituality, and other factors related to the assessment and evaluation of individuals, groups, and specific populations;

K.7.g. strategies for selecting, administering, and interpreting assessment and evaluation instruments and techniques in counseling;

K.7.h. an understanding of general principles and methods of case conceptualization, assessment, and/or diagnoses of mental and emotional status; and

K.7.i. ethical and legal considerations.

K.8.a. the importance of research and opportunities and difficulties in conducting research in the counseling profession;

K.8.b. research methods such as qualitative, quantitative, single-case designs, action research, and outcome-based research;

K.8.c. use of technology and statistical methods in conducting research and program evaluation, assuming basic computer literacy;

K.8.d. principles, models, and applications of needs assessment, program evaluation, and use of findings to effect program modifications;

K.8.e. use of research to improve counseling effectiveness; and

K.8.f. ethical and legal considerations.

A.1. history, philosophy, and current trends in school counseling and educational systems;

A.2. relationship of the school counseling program to the academic and student services program in the school;

A.4. strategies of leadership designed to enhance the learning environment of schools;

A.5. knowledge of the school setting, environment, and pre-K-12 curriculum;

B.1 . advocacy for all students and for effective school counseling programs;

B.2. coordination, collaboration, referral, and team-building efforts with teachers, parents, support personnel, and community resources to promote program objectives and facilitate successful student development and achievement of all students;

B.3. integration of the school counseling program into the total school curriculum by systematically providing information and skills training to assist pre-K-12 students in maximizing their academic, career, and personal/social development;

B.4. promotion of the use of counseling and guidance activities and programs by the total school community to enhance a positive school climate;

B.5. methods of planning for and presenting school counseling-related educational programs to administrators, teachers, parents, and the community;

B.6. methods of planning, developing, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating comprehensive developmental counseling programs; and

C.1.a. use, management, analysis, and presentation of data from school- based information (e.g., standardized testing, grades, enrollment, attendance, retention, placement),
surveys, interviews, focus groups, and needs assessments to improve student outcomes;

C.1.b. design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of comprehensive developmental school counseling programs (e.g., the ASCA National Standards for School Counseling Programs) including an awareness of various systems that affect students, school, and home;

C.1.c. implementation and evaluation of specific strategies that meet program goals and objectives;

C.1.d. identification of student academic, career, and personal/social competencies and the implementation of processes and activities to assist students in achieving these competencies;

C.1.e. preparation of an action plan and school counseling calendar that reflect appropriate time commitments and priorities in a comprehensive developmental school counseling program;

C.1.f. strategies for seeking and securing alternative funding for program expansion; and

C.1.g. use of technology in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of a comprehensive school counseling program.

C.2.a. individual and small-group counseling approaches that promote school success, through academic, career, and personal/social development for all;

C.2.d. issues that may affect the development and functioning of students (e.g., abuse, violence, eating disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, childhood depression, and suicide)

C.2.e. developmental approaches to assist all students and parents at points of educational

transition (e.g., home to elementary school, elementary to middle to high school, high school to postsecondary education and career options);

C.2.f. constructive partnerships with parents, guardians, families, and communities in order to promote each student's academic, career, and personal/social success;

C.2.g. systems theories and relationships among and between community systems, family systems, and school systems, and how they interact to influence the students and affect each system; and

C.2.h. approaches to recognizing and assisting children and adolescents who may use alcohol or other drugs or who may reside in a home where substance abuse occurs.

C.3.a. strategies to promote, develop, and enhance effective teamwork within the school and larger community;

C.3.b. theories, models, and processes of consultation and change with teachers, administrators, other school personnel, parents, community groups, agencies, and students as appropriate;

C.3.c. strategies and methods of working with parents, guardians, families, and communities to empower them to act on behalf of their children; and

C.3.d. knowledge and skills in conducting programs that are designed to enhance students' academic, social, emotional, career, and other developmental needs.

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