**CHAPTER
ONE**

Introduction
1

Expert computer systems 1

The field and the book 6

Historical survey 12

Readings 15

**CHAPTER
TWO**

Exact
and Inexact Reasoning in Knowledge Engineering 23

Thinking in rules 25

Plausible versus approximate reasoning: changing the topos
of evidence combination 30

The theory of categories 31

Approximate reasoning in fuzzy optimization 35

Summary 40

Readings 42

**CHAPTER
THREE**

Fuzzy
Sets 47

Vagueness 47

Open texture 49

Fuzzy set are functions 50

The algebra of fuzzy sets 52

How many are a few? Fuzzy numbers and sorites revised 58

The strategy of fuzzy sets 60

Summary 64

Readings 65

**CHAPTER
FOUR**

Knowledge
Representation 69

The problems of knowledge engineering 70

Production systems for symbolic manipulations 72

Production rules can be derived form verbal models 74

Production rules are relations between fuzzy sets 77

Linguistic variables in production rules 80

Representing knowledge by fuzzy relations 82

Summary 88

Readings 88

**CHAPTER
FIVE**

Approximate
Reasoning 95

Rules of Inference 95

What is truth? Compatibility 99

Knowledge diagrams are models of fuzzy systems 100

Truth questions 105

Value questions 107

Variable questions 109

Summary 111

Readings 112

**CHAPTER
SIX**

Knowledge
Engineering in Decision Support Systems 117

Judgment and information in decision making 117

Qualitative inquiries 120

Numeric data bases and linguistic queries 123

Policy routines 127

Planning and forecasting with dynamic robust models 129

Pullback in flexible programming 134

Summary 136

Readings

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