1. PHYSICS MAJOR REQUIREMENT: PHYS 221 Electronics Lecture and PHYS 222 Electronics Lab are required of physics majors who plan (1) to get a Ph.D. in Physics, (2) to get an MA in Physics or MA in Physics Teaching, or (3) to be high school teachers. Students taking PHYS 222 must also take PHYS 221 and it will be assumed the student has learned the electronics theory before seeing it in PHYS 222 Electronics Lab.
2. Mathematics background assumed: It is assumed the student has had at least one semester of calculus. If the student has NOT had a semester of calculus, the student should see the PHYS 222 instructor. It is NOT necessary for the student to have had MATH254 differential equations although the student should be prepared to learn some of this material in PHYS 222.
3. Physics Background Assumed: It is assumed the student has had PHYS 111/121 Introductory Physics WITH Calculus or the equivalent at some other school. If the student has had PHYS 110/120 or Introductory Physics WITHOUT Calculus (or the equivalent at another College or HS) please speak to the instructor to get guidance.
4. Lab Fee: A fee of $64 includes use of equipment (oscilloscope, signal generator, circuit board, digital meter etc) , part package (resistors, capacitors, inductors, transistors, operational amplifiers, transformers, switches, etc.) and lab manual on web. This fee is paid the first time PHYS 222 meets during the semester.
5. Lab Book: Each student must purchase a lab book in which the student will keep notes (including circuit diagrams, calculations, sketches of experimental results on meters and oscilloscopes, etc.) of the experiments performed. As mentioned, the lab instructor will initial and the date lab book at the end of each lab class. The description of the experiment need not be neatly written but it should be clear and detailed enough so that the student can reproduce the experiment at a later time if it proves necessary to repeat the experiment. The student should keep a record of numerical calculations performed in the lab book and also answer theoretical questions given in the lab notes.
6. Mathematica: The laboratory lectures are posted as Mathematica notebooks on the internet and can be read by the student using MathReader which is available free at http://www.wolfram.com Some notebooks contain calculations that can be repeated and modified using Mathematica which also may be purchased at http://www.wolfram.com for about $140 if you are a student. If you are a student at Hunter College (or the City University of New York) you may get a free copy of Mathematica as part of PHYS 222.
7. Configuring Your Internet Browser: Once you have either MathReader or Mathematica on your PC, you will need to CONFIGURE (or setup) your Netscape, AOL, or Internet Explorer to use Mathematica. After you have CONFIGURED your Netscape (or Explorer), you will be able to click on one of the notebooks of this page and the notebook will automatically download to your computer and Mathematica (or MathReader) will automatically startup so you can immediately read and use the notebook.
CONFIGURING your computer is NOT hard and can be learned at the site (that follows ) that is appropriate for you:
1. Learn how to configure Netscape (or AOL) for Macintosh at
2. Learn how to configure Netscape (or AOL) for Windows at
3. Learn how to configure MS Explorer for Macintosh at
4. Learn how to configure MS Explorer for Windows at
Alternatively, the notebooks on this web page can be downloaded to your Personal Computer using FTP (File Transfer Protocol) software (e.g. Fetch on the Macintosh) and opened provided you have the Mathematica (or MathReader) software on your computer.
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