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What are the different publishing states?

An item's state indicates where that item is in the workflow process.

Has the item just been created? Is it ready to be reviewed? Is it pending publication? Is it visible on the live site?

The state of an item tells you all of this, and more. It determines who can access the item and what actions can be taken on it.

The various publishing states are as follows:

 

Working Draft

When an item is first created, it is in the Working Draft state. Anyone with the Write Content role can edit this item, and it is not visible on the public-facing website.

In the Working Draft state, you can:

  • Submit for Review: Editors can use this option in the State drop-down menu to hand off the item to the next person in the workflow process - the Reviewer. (Item will go into the Pending Review state.)
  • Submit for External Publication: If your subsite's reviewer and publisher are the same person, you can skip the 'submit for review' step and go straight to 'submit for external publication'. (Item will go into the Pending External Publication state.)
  • Publish Internally: Users with the Publish Content role can publish the item internally, meaning only other users with access to the WebCMS will be able to see it. (Item will go into the Internally Published state.)
  • Publish Externally: Users with the Publish Content role can publish the item externally, meaning this item will become visible to the general public on the live website. (Item will go into the Externally Published state.)

 

Pending Review

In item in the pending review state has been written by an Author or Editor, and is now in the second stage of the workflow process. At this point, a Reviewer or Publisher is responsible for looking over the content and making any changes that are needed.

In the Pending Review state, you can:

  • Retract to Working Draft: If the item is not ready to move forward in the workflow process, it can be retracted. In this case, the original author is expected to revise the material and re-submit it once changes are made. (Item will go into the Working Draft state.)
  • Submit for External Publication: If the item meets the reviewer's approval, it can be passed along to the next person in the workflow process - the Publisher. (Item will go into the Pending External Publication state.)
  • Publish Internally: Users with the Publish Content role can publish the item internally, meaning only other users with access to the WebCMS will be able to see it. (Item will go into the Internally Published state.)
  • Publish Externally: Users with the Publish Content role can publish the item externally, meaning this item will become visible to the general public on the live website. (Item will go into the Externally Published state.)

 

Pending External Publication

An item in this state should be ready to go live on the public website. The item has been reviewed and meets all professional and academic standards. At this point, a Publisher is responsible for giving final approval to the content and publishing it on the live website.

In the Pending External Publication state, you can:

  • Retract to Working Draft: If the item is not ready to be published, it can be retracted back to the initial working draft state. In this case, the original author is expected to revise the material and re-submit it once changes are made. Essentially, this starts the workflow process over. (Item will go into the Working Draft state.)
  • Retract to Pending Review: If the Publisher feels that the material ought to be reviewed one more time, the item can be retracted. (Item will go into the Pending Review state.)
  • Publish Internally: Users with the Publish Content role can publish the item internally, meaning only other users with access to the WebCMS will be able to see it. (Item will go into the Internally Published state.)
  • Publish Externally: Users with the Publish Content role can publish the item externally, meaning this item will become visible to the general public on the live website. (Item will go into the Externally Published state.)

 

Internally Published

An item in the Internally Published state is visible to any user with access to the WebCMS, but is not visible on the public-facing website.

In the Internally Published state, you can:

  • Retract to Working Draft: If the item is not ready to be externally published, it can be retracted back to the initial working draft state. In this case, the original author is expected to revise the material and re-submit it once changes are made. Essentially, this starts the workflow process over. (Item will go into the Working Draft state.)
  • Submit for External Publication: If the item is appropriate for a public audience, it can be submitted for external publication. (Item will go into the Pending External Publication state.)
  • Publish Externally: Users with the Publish Content role can publish the item externally, meaning this item will become visible to the general public on the live website. (Item will go into the Externally Published state.)

 

Externally Published

An item in the Externally Published state is visible to the general public. It is available on the public-facing website and is considered "live". It is the responsibility of the subsite's staffer(s) and publisher(s) to keep all externally published content up-to-date, correct and current. An item in this state cannot be retracted to a previous state, but can be edited using the check-out/check-in process.

In the Externally Published state, you can:

  • Mark as Old: If an item becomes outdated or is pending deletion, it should be marked as old. This inserts a notice at the top of the page alerting visitors to the fact that the item has expired. (Item will go into the Old state.)

 

Old

An item in the Old state is either outdated or pending deletion. This state is appropriate for materials that may no longer be correct or relevant, but which should be preserved for future reference.

In the Old state, you can:

  • Unmark as Old: If an item was incorrectly marked as old, or if the information has once again become relevant, you can revert the item back to its previous state. (Item will go into the Externally Published state.)

 

The below diagram may help you visualize the states and how they relate to each other. (Click on the image to enlarge it.)

States & Workflow

 

 

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